Viens

For my character, i want veins running up the neck and face, i want some to be protruding and others to be subtle, i want these to look realistic and run along with the natural muscles and veins. The best way to do this was to collect visual and factual research on veins. Through book and internet sources I am going to analyse the pictures of the anatomy of the veins and muscle system to try and gain a realistic replica.

The external jugular vein receives the greater part of the blood from the exterior of the cranium and the deep parts of the face, being formed by the junction of the posterior division of the posterior facial with the posterior auricular vein. It commences in the substance of the parotid gland, on a level with the angle of the mandible, and runs perpendicularly down the neck, in the direction of a line drawn from the angle of the mandible to the middle of the clavicle at the posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus. In its course it crosses the Sternocleidomastoideus obliquely, and in the subclavian triangle perforates the deep fascia, and ends in the subclavian vein, lateral to or in front of the Scalenus anterior. It is separated from the Sternocleidomastoideus by the investing layer of the deep cervical fascia, and is covered by the Platysma, the superficial fascia, and the integument; it crosses the cutaneous cervical nerve, and its upper half runs parallel with the great auricular nerve. The external jugular vein varies in size, bearing an inverse proportion to the other veins of the neck, it is occasionally double. It is provided with two pairs of valves, the lower pair being placed at its entrance into the subclavian vein, the upper in most cases about 4 cm. above the clavicle. The portion of vein between the two sets of valves is often dilated, and is termed the sinus. These valves do not prevent the regurgitation of the blood, or the passage of injection from below upward.

Tributaries.—This vein receives the occipital occasionally, the posterior external jugular, and, near its termination, the transverse cervical, transverse scapular, and anterior jugular veins; in the substance of the parotid, a large branch of communication from the internal jugular joins it. 3

Below is View of the veins of the neck, viewed from the front!

i found this image very helpful towards my project and research, as it a front view of the neck veins and muscles. In my design i am going to include vines running up the chest and neck area. This gives me a first hand source to sculpt from, this will give me a better sculpt and detailed piece.

I think in order to get an accurate and life like sculpt i need to look at the full anatomy of the neck, From arteries and muscles and they will add depth to make it look realistic. Using a brilliant book ‘Atlas of Anatomy’ by gilroy, it helped me with visualise the neck and how i shall sculpt.

Arteries  of the neckLeft lateral view. The structures of the neck are primarily supplied by the external carotid artery (anterior branches) and the subclavian artery.

Arteries of the neck – Left lateral view. The structures of the neck are primarily supplied by the external carotid artery (anterior branches) and the subclavian artery.

 

Veins of the neck -Left lateral view. The principal veins of the neck are the internal, external, and anterior jugular veins.

Veins of the neck -Left lateral view. The principal veins of the neck are the internal, external, and anterior jugular veins.

Impeded blood flow and veins of the neck

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When clinical factors, for example chronic lung disease, mediastinal tumors, or infections impede the flow of blood to the right heart, blood dams up in the superior vena cava and, consequently, the jugular veins. This causes conspicuous swelling in the jugular. The below image is the the result of the swelling in the juglar vein.

This is perfect for my evidence as i want to sculpt the veins in various sizes, some very subtle and other protruding, looking like it has been causing distress to the character. Having first hand images of this helps as it allows me to work from the real thing rather than imagination to get realistic piece.

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After looking into the anatomy of the neck, the ;sat image of the swollen vein, has intrigued me into look at different diseases in the bodies veins.

When researching about veins, i need to find out what was normal, and what was abnormal. Veins are a type of blood vessel that brings blood back from the tissues of the body to the heart. The veins in your legs, therefore, carry blood up the legs towards the heart.
I found out that there are two types of veins,
Superficial veins are those that you can see or feel (if your skin is dark) just under the skin. They are more prominent when they are under pressure, which is why an armband helps doctors find the veins in your arm before they give injections or take a blood sample. The veins in your legs are also more prominent when you stand up, because they have to work harder to return blood against gravity.
Deep veins are further from the skin surface. In the legs, they are within the muscle of the leg and can not be seen. This gives me a better understanding of what i am looking for when researching images, Although i am looking for a more thicker and stated vein, this allows me to compare.

When looking at veins i found more research about what can go wrong with veins, this evidence is perfect for what i need to sculpt my neck piece, it shows me different scales of veins and how big and small they can be, different colours and shape.

The first disease i looked at was varicose veins. This is a very popular in a lot of older people, but can commonly be seen on many ages of people. Varicose veins are superficial veins that have become dilated and irregular. Like many disease there is different extremes to varicose veins.

Another common formed vein disease is Phlebitis, Phlebitis is a bloodclot, that has formed in the superficial veins, which can cause the veins to become inflamed. The vein is red, swollen and painful but the condition can be treated unlike varicose gains.

 

From this research i want to look at movies/stories that have similar traits in there characters, veins, or tattoos or bruising.

 

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